Instructional Design Models

Instructional design models are vast in instructional design regardless of the domain. These models provide guidelines or blueprints of steps for designers to follow to achieve the result and goal. “ID models break down the phases of instruction planning to support” the systematic process and relationship of each phase (Johnson-Barlow, & Lehnen, 2021). All are learner-centered, goal-driven, and empirically minded. While many models echo others found in psychology theories, others were influenced by creators in the field. This module’s two specific models are ADDIE and Gagné’s 9 Events of Instruction, featured by Carlow University. Are instructional models strictly followed, or do they vary like trends?

            The ADDIE model is popularly termed and coined in the field. This stands for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. The phases progress from setting the goal, planning each part, building the course and objectives, modifying as needed through feedback, and lastly, evaluating the data (Carlow University; Johnson-Barlow, & Lehnen, 2021). This is a compacted list of steps to use when designing. This is systematic and helpful for the novice. I believe advanced users would skip steps or combine them because it may seem too mundane and drawn out. 

            The Gagné’s 9 Events of Instruction was identified by Robert Gagné’s. This model includes internal and external or environmental factors based on “conditions of learning” (Khadjooi et al., 2011). The nine stages are gaining student attention, informing learners of objectives, stimulating recall of prior learning, presenting the context, providing learner guidance, enhancing retention and transfer, assessing performance, providing feedback, and eliciting performance (Carlow University). This model is also systematic for intermediate users. 

            Uniquely, more journal studies were found on Gagné’s 9 Events of Instruction present the idea that it is thought more of a researched method or psychological theory than a way of doing a design like ADDIE. Most design models “derive from the generic ADDIE model” (Johnson-Barlow, & Lehnen, 2021). ADDIE is viewed as the original version. Is ADDIE more accepted and desired, or is it simply more popular?

            There are ways to answer each method or phase in both instructional methods. The two are similar in steps. Gagné’s method is more explicit with the steps and moving parts. Both become instinctual and habitual once done multiple times. Gagné’s method takes into consideration prior learning (Carlow University). During formals in education, there are different stages for conferencing. I feel like ADDIE is geared for education. At the same time, Gagné’s method is multipurpose as it “has been applied to the design of instruction in several domains, such as military, flying, leadership, engineering, and healthcare” (Khadjooi et al., 2011). Johnson-Barlow and Lehnen (2021) researched the systematic application of the ADDIE instructional model by academic librarians. Is there a set instructional design model for each domain? 

            Overall, instructional models help differentiate the steps and focal points. ADDIE is a more generalized way of designing. It gives way for much creative freedom that may be better for advanced users because they can add sub-steps. In Gagné’s 9 Events of Instruction, the flexibility is limited due to the phases. The creativity comes from how one gains learner attention and teaching objectives. Are there fundamental principles all models have in common? Do clients instruct you to use a specific instructional model? Design models are blueprints for implementation (Khadjooi et al., 2011). Without a design model, not only would essential planning parts be inefficient, but the designers’ mindset would also be frazzled.

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